What Are the Program Models for ELL Instruction

Language acquisition is a complex yet essential process for English Language Learners (ELL) within educational settings. To cater to the diverse linguistic needs of these students, schools have implemented various program models that aim to provide effective English language instruction. Four primary program models have emerged, each designed to address specific educational goals and linguistic competencies. The English Immersion model immerses ELL students in English-only classrooms, fostering rapid language acquisition through constant exposure to the target language. The pull-out or Push-out- Pull-in (POPI) model involves withdrawing students from their regular classroom activities to receive English language instruction in a separate setting. The Sheltered Immersion model modifies regular content instruction to accommodate the language needs of ELL students, utilizing instructional strategies that make the content comprehensible. Lastly, the Dual Language model promotes the development of both English and the students' native language, leveraging bilingualism and biliteracy as educational assets. Each of these program models presents unique benefits and challenges, providing educators with flexibility to tailor instruction to meet the diverse needs of ELL students, ultimately empowering them to thrive academically and linguistically.

What Are the Essential Components of Any Instructional Models and Programs for ELLs?

When it comes to instructional models and programs for English Language Learners (ELLs), several essential components should be considered to ensure effective and inclusive education. Firstly, English as a Second Language (ESL) instruction plays a crucial role in helping ELLs acquire English language skills. This component focuses on developing students listening, speaking, reading, and writing abilities in English.

Another important component is content-area instruction. ELLs should have access to curriculum content in different academic subjects, such as math, science, and social studies. This instruction may be provided in the students home language, enabling them to comprehend and engage with the material more effectively. Alternatively, sheltered English instruction can be employed, where teachers use simplified English and visual supports to make content comprehensible for ELLs. By incorporating subject-specific vocabulary and language development activities, content-area instruction ensures that ELLs can participate meaningfully in all academic areas.

Additionally, primary language support is a fundamental component of instructional programs for ELLs. This approach recognizes the value of students native language and seeks to maintain and develop their proficiency in it. By providing bilingual resources, instruction, and assessments, primary language support honors the cultural and linguistic diversity of ELLs. It helps them connect new concepts to their prior knowledge and develop a strong foundation for learning in both their native language and English.

Lastly, family and community involvement is a vital component of instructional programs for ELLs. Schools should actively engage parents and families of ELLs by providing regular communication, resources, and opportunities for involvement. This collaboration strengthens the support network for ELLs and fosters a culturally inclusive learning environment. By working together, educators, families, and the community can contribute to the academic success and social-emotional well-being of ELLs.

By incorporating these components, educators can create inclusive and effective instructional environments that support the linguistic, cultural, and academic growth of English Language Learners.

Community Partnerships: How Can Schools Collaborate With Community Organizations, Language Centers, and Other Resources to Provide Additional Support and Opportunities for ELLs and Their Families Outside of the Classroom?

  • Identify local community organizations and language centers that can provide support to ELLs and their families.
  • Establish partnerships with these organizations and centers to create programs and initiatives for ELLs and their families.
  • Collaborate with community resources to offer after-school tutoring and mentoring programs for ELLs.
  • Organize cultural exchange events and activities in partnership with community organizations.
  • Create opportunities for ELLs to participate in community service projects with local organizations.
  • Arrange workshops and trainings for ELL parents on topics such as language acquisition and educational resources.
  • Collaborate with community organizations to provide resources and assistance to ELL families in accessing healthcare and social services.
  • Create a network of community organizations, language centers, and schools to share resources and best practices for supporting ELLs.
  • Facilitate communication between schools, community organizations, and families to ensure a coordinated approach in supporting ELL students.
  • Develop partnerships with local businesses to provide internship and job opportunities for ELLs.


In conclusion, the four program models for ELL instruction – English Immersion, POPI, Sheltered Immersion, and Dual Language – encompass the principles that guide a wide range of program designs. These models prioritize the acquisition of English language skills while also valuing the maintenance and development of students' native language. Each model offers unique advantages and approaches, enabling educators to create inclusive and effective learning environments for ELL students. Ultimately, the implementation of these program models fosters linguistic and cultural diversity, promotes academic success, and prepares students for success in a globalized world.

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