TVET Definition | UNESCO

To specific occupations or trades. It encompasses a wide range of learning opportunities, including vocational schools, technical institutes, apprenticeship programs, and on-the-job training. By bridging the gap between education and employment, TVET ensures that individuals are adequately prepared for the ever-changing demands of the labor market, making them valuable contributors to their societies and economies. In addition to providing technical knowledge and practical skills, TVET also instills crucial attitudes, values, and ethics, emphasizing the importance of lifelong learning, adaptability, and innovation.

What Are the Goals and Objectives of TVET?

TVET programs typically have specific objectives they aim to achieve. One common objective is to ensure that students are equipped with practical skills that are directly relevant to the demands of the labor market. This means that TVET programs strive to stay up-to-date with the latest industry trends and requirements, ensuring that graduates are well-prepared to meet the needs of employers.

Furthermore, TVET plays a crucial role in developing the economy by supporting the growth of industries and fostering innovation. By providing a skilled workforce, TVET helps industries thrive and remain competitive in the global market. It also promotes entrepreneurship and encourages individuals to start their own businesses, thus contributing to economic development and job creation.

Lastly, TVET programs often aim to address social issues, such as reducing unemployment and poverty. This, in turn, improves the overall well-being and quality of life for individuals and communities.

The Funding and Financing Models for TVET Programs and Their Implications

  • Government funding: Many TVET programs receive financial support from the government. This includes funding for the development of new programs, infrastructure improvement, and support for students through scholarships or grants.
  • Industry partnerships: TVET programs often collaborate with industry partners to secure funding. These partnerships can involve financial contributions, in-kind support, or the provision of training facilities and equipment.
  • Private sector investments: Some TVET programs attract funding from private sector organizations. These can include companies, foundations, or individual donors who see value in supporting vocational education.
  • Student contributions: In some cases, students are required to pay fees or contribute toward the cost of their TVET education. This can help generate revenue for the program and ensure sustainability.
  • International aid and donor funding: TVET programs, particularly in developing countries, may receive financial support from international organizations or donor agencies. These funds are usually targeted toward specific initiatives to improve vocational education and training.
  • Income-generating activities: Some TVET programs generate income through various activities such as offering consultancy services, conducting short-term courses for industry professionals, or renting out training facilities.
  • Public-private partnerships: Collaborations between public and private entities can result in shared funding for TVET programs. These partnerships often involve a combination of government funds, industry contributions, and other sources of financing.
  • Endowment and foundation support: TVET programs may benefit from endowments or grants provided by foundations or other philanthropic organizations. This funding helps sustain the programs and supports initiatives aimed at enhancing vocational education.


It empowers individuals to enhance their employability, adapt to changing work requirements, and navigate the complexities of the modern job market. Furthermore, TVET plays a significant role in fostering social inclusion and promoting gender equality, as it offers equal opportunities for individuals from diverse backgrounds and enables them to pursue their career aspirations. By recognizing the value and importance of TVET, UNESCO and ILO aim to strengthen it’s implementation, improve it’s quality and relevance, and ensure it’s recognition and acceptance both nationally and internationally.

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